Ley 1561 De 2012 Analysis Essay

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2. Bowen KM, Lafferty KJ. Reversal of diabetes by allogenic islet transplantation without immunosuppression. Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci. 1980;58:441–447.[PubMed]

3. Parr EL, Lafferty KJ, Bowen KM, McKenzie IF. H-2 complex and Ia antigens on cells dissociated from mouse thyroid glands and islets of Langerhans. Transplantation. 1980;30:142–148.[PubMed]
[These three studies are the first reporting on APC in the islets of Langerhans.]

4. Lacy PE. Transplantation of islet cells—isografts and allografts. Monogr Pathol. 1980;21:156–165.[PubMed]

5. Snell GD. The homograft reaction. Ann Rev Microbiol. 1957;11:439–458.[PubMed]

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10. Faustman DL, Steinman RM, Gebel HM, Hauptfeld V, Davie JM, Lacy PE. Prevention of rejection of murine islet allografts by pretreatment with anti-dendritic cell antibody. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1984;81:3864–3868.[PMC free article][PubMed]

11. Shienvold FL, Alejandro R, Mintz DH. Identification of Ia-bearing cells in rat, dog, pig, and human islets of Langerhans. Transplantation. 1986;41:364–372.[PubMed]

12. Von Gaudecker B, Ulrichs K, Müller-Ruchholtz W. Immunoelectron microscopic localization of MHC structures in isolated pancreatic rat islets. Diabetes. 1989;38:150–153.[PubMed]

13. McInerney MF, Rath S, Janeway CA., Jr Exclusive expression of MHC class II protein on CD45+ cells in pancreatic islets of NOD mice. Diabetes. 1991;40:648–651.[PubMed]

14. Danilovs JA, Hofman FM, Taylor CR, Brown J. Expression of HLA-DR antigens in human fetal pancreas tissue. Diabetes. 1982;31:23–9.[PubMed]

15. Leprini A, Valente U, Celada F, Fontana I, Barocci S, Nocera A. Morphology, cytochemical features, and membrane phenotype of HLA-DR+ interstitial cells in the human pancreas. Pancreas. 1987;2:127–135.[PubMed]

16. Lautenschlager I, Inkinen K, Taskinen E, Charles MA, Hayry P. Major histocompatibility complex protein expression on pancreas and pancreatic islet endocrine cell subsets. Am J Pathol. 1989;135:1129–1137.[PMC free article][PubMed]

17. Lu W, Pipeleers DG, Klöppel G, Bouwens L. Comparative immunocytochemical study of MHC class II expression in human donor pancreas and isolated islets. Virchows Arch. 1996;429:205–211.[PubMed]

18. Shimizu J, Carrasco-Marin E, Kanagawa O, Unanue ER. Relationship between beta cell injury and antigen presentation in NOD mice. J Immunol. 1995;155:4095–4099.[PubMed]

19. Calderon B, Suri A, Miller MJ, Unanue ER. Dendritic cells in islets of Langerhans constitutively present beta cell derived peptides bound to their class II MHC molecules. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2008;105:6121–6126.[PMC free article][PubMed]
[This report identified the phenotype, localization and steady state of islet DC. More importantly, this work showed direct visualization of the β-cell-derived antigen presented by the MHC II of the islet DC.]

20. Melli K, Friedman RS, Martin AE, Finger EB, Miao G, Szot GL, Krummel MF, Tang Q. Amplification of autoimmune response through induction of dendritic cell maturation in inflamed tissues. J Immunol. 2009;182:2590–2600.[PMC free article][PubMed]

21. Ginhoux F, Liu K, Heift J, Bogunovic M, Greter M, Hashimoto D, Price J, Yin N, Bromberg J, Lira SA, Stanley ER, Nussenzweig M, Merad M. The origin and development of nonlymphoid tissue CD103+ DCs. J Exp Med. 2009;206:3115–3130.[PMC free article][PubMed]

22. Mohan JF, Levisetti MG, Calderon B, Herzog JW, Petzold SJ, Unanue ER. Unique autoreactive T cells recognize insulin peptides generated within the islets of Langerhans in autoimmune diabetes. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:350–354.[PMC free article][PubMed]
[This paper describes the role of islet DC in selecting T cells with unique specificity to insulin peptides.]

23. Calderon B, Carrero JA, Miller MJ, Unanue ER. Cellular and molecular events in the localization of diabetogenic T cells to islets of Langerhans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2011;108:1561–1566.[PMC free article][PubMed]

24. Calderon B, Carrero JA, Miller MJ, Unanue ER. Entry of diabetogenic T cells into islets induces changes that lead to amplification of the cellular response. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2011;108:1567–1572.[PMC free article][PubMed]
[These two papers from our laboratory describe the localization mechanisms of diabetogenic CD4 T cells and how islets become receptive to the entry of non-specific CD4 T cells.]

25. Rescigno M, Urbano M, Valzasina B, Francolini M, Rotta G, Bonasio R, Granucci F, Kraehenbuhl JP, Ricciardi-Castagnoli P. Dendritic cells express tight junction proteins and penetrate gut epithelial monolayers to sample bacteria. Nat Immunol. 2001;2:361–367.[PubMed]

26. Chieppa M, rescigno M, Huang AY, Germain RN. Dynamic imaging of dendritic cell extension into the small bowel lumen in response to epithelial cell TLR engagement. J Exp Med. 2006;203:2841–2852.[PMC free article][PubMed]

27. Hapfelmeier S, Muller AJ, Stecher B, Kaiser P, Barthel M, Endt K, Eberhard M, Robbiani R, Jacobi CA, Heikenwalder M, Kirschning C, Jung S, Stallmach T, Kremer M, Hardt WD. Microbe sampling by mucosal dendritic cells is a discrete, MyD88-independent step in DeltainvG S. Typhimurium colitis. J Exp Med. 2008;205:437–450.[PMC free article][PubMed]

28. Jahnsen FL, Strickland DH, Thomas JA, Tobagus IT, Napoli S, Zosky GR, Turner DJ, Sly PD, Stumbles PA, Holt PG. Accelerated antigen sampling and transport by airway mucosal dendritic cells following inhalation of a bacterial stimulus. J Immunol. 2006;177:5861–5867.[PubMed]

29. Choi JH, Do Y, Cheong C, Koh H, Boscardin SB, Oh YS, Bozzacco L, Trumpfheller C, Park CG, Steinman RM. Identification of antigen-presenting dendritic cells in mouse aorta and cardiac valves. J Exp Med. 2009;206:497–505.[PMC free article][PubMed]
[References 23 and 25-29 show DC dendrites periscoping between endocrine, vascular and epithelial cells.]

30. Jansen A, Homo-Delarche F, Hooijkaas H, Leenen PJ, Dardenne M, Dreshage HA. Immunohistochemical characterization of monocytes-macrophages and dendritic cells involved in the initiation of the insulitis and beta-cell destruction in NOD mice. Diabetes. 1994;43:667–675.[PubMed]

31. Banaei-Bouchareb L, Gouon-Evans V, Samara-Boustani D, Castellotti MC, Czernichow P, Pollard JW, Polak M. Insulin cell mass is altered in Csf1op/Csf10p macrophage-deficient mice. J Leukoc Biol. 2004;76:359–367.[PubMed]
[Op/op mice having a nonfunctional CSF-1 molecule have small islets. Reference 19 confirmed this finding and showed the absence of islet DC.]

32. Haskins K, Portas M, Bergman B, Lafferty K, Bradley B. Pancreatic islet-specific T-cell clones from nonobese diabetic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1989;86:8000–8004.[PMC free article][PubMed]

33. Haskins K, Portas M, Bradley B, Wegmann D, Lafferty K. T-lymphocyte clone specific for pancreatic islet antigen. Diabetes. 1988;37:1444–1448.[PubMed]
[References 32 and 33 are major contributions in which diabetogenic T cells are identified and isolated.]

34. Shimizu J, Kanagawa O, Unanue ER. Presentation of beta-cell antigens to CD4+ and CD8+ cells of non-obese diabetic mice. J Immunol. 1993;151:1723–1730.[PubMed]

35. Sarukhan A, Lechner O, von Boehmer H. Autoimmune insulitis and diabetes in the absence of antigen-specific contact between T cells and islet β cells. Eur J Immunol. 1999;29:3410–3416.[PubMed]

36. Katz JD, Wang B, Haskins K, Benoist C, Mathis D. Following a diabetogenic T-cell from genesis through pathogenesis. Cell. 1993;74:1089–1100.[PubMed]
[A major contribution examining the biology of a TCR transgenic diabetogenic T cells.]

37. Akkaraju S, Ho WY, Leong D, Canaan K, Davis MM, Goodnow CC. A range of CD4 T cell tolerance: partial inactivation to organ-specific antigen allows nondestructive thyroiditis or insulitis. Immunity. 1997;7:255–271.[PubMed]

38. DiPaolo RJ, Unanue ER. The level of peptide-MHC complex determines the susceptibility to autoimmune diabetes: Studies in HEL transgenic mice. Eur J Immunol. 2001;31:3453–3459.[PubMed]

39. Byersdorfer CA, Schweitzer GG, Unanue ER. Diabetes is predicted by the beta cell level of autoantigen. J Immunol. 2005;175:4347–4354.[PubMed]

40. Wegmann DR, Norbury-Glaser M, Daniel D. Insulin-specific T cells are a predominant component of islet infiltrates in prediabetic NOD mice. Eur. J. Immunol. 1994;24:1853–1857.[PubMed]
[The first identification of insulin-reactive CD4 T cells in NOD diabetes.]

41. Wegmann DR. Eisenbarth GS: It's insulin. J Autoimmun. 2000;15:286–291.[PubMed]

42. Hara M, Wang X, Kawamura T, Bindokas VP, Dizon RF, Alcoser SY, Magnuson MA, Bell GI. Transgenic mice with green fluorescent protein-labeled pancreatic β-cells. Am J Physiol. 2003;284:E177–E183.[PubMed]

43. Carter PB. Collins FM: The route of enteric infection in normal mice. J Exp Med. 1974;139:1189–1203.[PMC free article][PubMed]

44. Turley SJ, Lee JW, Dutton-Swain N, Mathis D, Benoist C. Endocrine self and gut non-self intersect in the pancreatic lymph nodes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2005;102:17729–17733.[PMC free article][PubMed]
[Refs 43 and 44 show that the PLN drains part of the colon and small intestine and is subject to influences from intestinal content.]

45. Wen L, Ley RE, Volchkov PY, Stranges PB, Avanesyan L, Stonebraker AC, Hu C, Wong FS, Szot GL, Bluestone JA, Gordon JI, Chervonsky AV. Innate immunity and intestinal microbiota in the development of type 1 diabetes. Nature. 2008;455:1109–1113.[PMC free article][PubMed]

46. Gagnerault MC, Luan JJ, Lotton C, Lepault F. Pancreatic lymph nodes are required for priming of β cell reactive T cells in NOD mice. J Exp Med. 2002;196:369–377.[PMC free article][PubMed]

47. Levisetti MG, Suri A, Frederick K, Unanue ER. Absence of lymph nodes in NOD mice treated with lymphotoxin-β receptor immunoglobulin protects from diabetes. Diabetes. 2004;53:3115–3119.[PubMed]
[References 46 and 47 show the requirements of PLN in the development of diabetes in the NOD mouse.]

48. Hoglund P, Mintern J, Waltzinger C, Heath W, Benoist C, Mathis D. Initiation of autoimmune diabetes by developmentally regulated presentation of islet cell antigens in the pancreatic lymph nodes. J Exp Med. 1999;189:331–339.[PMC free article][PubMed]
[The CD4 BDC-2.5 T cells do not proliferate in PLN of 10 day old mice. This paper and references 53, 56 and 57 point to an early period where the PLN is inactive in priming CD4 and CD8 diabetogenic T cells.]

49. Tang Q, Adams JY, Tooley AJ, Bi M, Fife BT, Serra P, Santamaria P, Locksley RM, Krummel MF, Bluestone JA. Visualizing regulatory T cell control of autoimmune responses in nonobese diabetic mice. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:83–92.[PMC free article][PubMed]

50. Kurts C, Kosaka H, Carbone FR, Miller JF, Heath WR. Class I-restricted cross-presentation of exogenous self-antigens leads to deletion of autoreactive CD8(+) T cells. J Exp Med. 1997;186:239–245.[PMC free article][PubMed]

51. Kurts C, Miller JFAP, Subramaniam RM, Carbone FR, Heath WR. Major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted cross-presentation is biased towards high dose antigens and those released during cellular destruction. J Exp Med. 1998;188:409–414.[PMC free article][PubMed]

52. Kurts C, Sutherland RM, Davey G, Li M, Lew AM, Blanas E, Carbone FR, Miller JF, Heath WR. CD8 T cell ignorance or tolerance to islet antigens depends on antigen dose. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1999;96:12703–12707.[PMC free article][PubMed]

53. Zhang Y, O'Brien B, Trudeau J, Tan R, Santamaria P, Dutz JP. In situ beta cell death promotes priming of diabetogenc CD8 T lymphocytes. J Immunol. 2002;168:1466–1472.[PubMed]
[References 50-53 show the proliferation in the PLN of CD8 T cells to β-cell antigens.]

54. Turley S, Poirot L, Hattori M, Benoist C, Mathis D. Physiological β cell death triggers priming of self-reactive T cells by dendritic in a type-1 diabetes model. J Exp Med. 2003;198:1527–1537.[PMC free article][PubMed]

55. Hänninen A, Nurmela R, Maksimow M, Heino J, Jalkanen S, Kurts C. Islet beta-cell-specific T cells can use different homing mechanisms to infiltrate and destroy pancreatic islets. Am J Pathol. 2007 Jan;170(1):240–50. Erratum in: Am J Pathol. 2008,172:1153. [PMC free article][PubMed]

56. Morgan DJ, Kurts C, Kreuwel HT, Holst KL, Heath WR, Sherman LA. Ontogeny of T cell tolerance to peripherally expressed antigens. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1999;96:3854–3858.[PMC free article][PubMed]

57. Mintern JD, Sutherland RM, Lew AM, Shortman K, Carbone FR, Heath WR. Constitutive, but not inflammatory, cross-presentation is disabled in the pancreas of young mice. Eur J Immunol. 2002;32:1044–1051.[PubMed]

58. Finegood DT, Scaglia L, Bonner-Weir S. Dynamics of beta-cell mass in the growing rat pancreas. Estimation with a simple mathematical model. Diabetes. 1995;44:249–256.[PubMed]

59. Scaglia L, Cahill CJ, Finegood DT, Bonner-Weir S. Apoptosis participates in the remodeling of the endocrine pancreas in the neonatal rat. Endocrinol. 1997;138:1736–1741.[PubMed]

60. Petrik J, Arany E, McDonald TJ, Hill DJ. Apoptosis in the pancreatic islet cells of the neonatal rat is associated with a reduced expression of insulin-like growth factor II that may act as a survival factor. Endocrinology. 1998;139:2994–3004.[PubMed]

61. Trudeau JD, Dutz JP, Arany E, Hill DJ, Fieldus WE, Finegood DT. Neonatal beta-cell apoptosis: a trigger for autoimmune diabetes? Diabetes. 2000;49:1–7.[PubMed]

62. Hill DJ, Strutt B, Arany E, Zaina S, Coukell S, Graham CF. Increased and persistent circulating insulin-like growth factor II in neonatal transgenic mice suppresses developmental apoptosis in the pancreatic islets. Endocrinology. 2000;141:1151–1157.[PubMed]

63. Kassem SA, Ariel L, Thornton PS, Scheimberg I, Glaser B. Beta-cell proliferation and apopotosis in the developing normal human pancreas and in hyperinsulinism of infancy. Diabetes. 2000;49:1325–1333.[PubMed]

64. Mathis D, Vence L, Beniost C. β-cell death during progression to diabetes. Nature. 2001;414:792–798.

Ramiro Bejarano Guzmán

Director del Departamento de Derecho Procesal de la Universidad Externado de Colombia

 

La Ley 1561 del 2012 diseñó un proceso verbal especial para que los poseedores de predios rurales que no excedan de una unidad agrícola familiar (UAF) o de predios urbanos cuyo avalúo catastral no supere el equivalente a 250 salarios mínimos mensuales promuevan la declaración de pertenencia. Igualmente, previó que mediante este proceso verbal especial puedan sanearse “títulos que conlleven la falsa tradición”.

 

Mientras no hay duda de que la declaración de pertenencia formulada para ser decidida en un proceso verbal especial debe predicarse solamente respecto de inmuebles rurales que no excedan de una UAF o predios urbanos cuyo valor no supere los 250 salarios mínimos mensuales, en el saneamiento de la falsa tradición, algunos jueces consideran que se puede acudir al proceso verbal, cualquiera sea la extensión o el valor del predio, al paso que otros entienden que este trámite es solo para predios de reducida importancia económica.

 

Quienes entienden que el proceso verbal especial de saneamiento de la falsa tradición es para toda clase de inmuebles rurales y urbanos alegan que, para este específico caso, la ley no hizo la distinción sobre extensión o valor de los predios rurales y urbanos, como sí lo hizo para el caso de que se promueva la declaración de pertenencia. Tal argumento, en mi criterio, es errado.

 

Es cierto que la Ley 1561 no destinó un artículo especial para señalar que el saneamiento de la falsa tradición también se predicaría de inmuebles urbanos no mayores de una UAF o predios urbanos cuyo valor no exceda de 250 salarios mínimos mensuales, pero de allí no se puede colegir que eso signifique que toda persona que pretenda sanear la falsa tradición de cualquier inmueble pueda acudir al proceso verbal especial.

 

Revisando los antecedentes de la Ley 1561 –tarea en la que me auxiliaron las jóvenes profesoras del Externado doctoras Daniela Corchuelo y Mónica León–, se advierte que el proyecto original presentado al Congreso, en su artículo 6º, intitulado “asuntos”, preveía que “se tramitarán y decidirán mediante el proceso verbal especial de formalización previsto en la presente ley tanto los procesos relacionados con la prescripción agraria de pequeños fundos rurales, como la prescripción ordinaria y extraordinaria de predios rurales” y, además, el “saneamiento de la falsa tradición en la propiedad inmueble a que se refiere la Ley 1182 de 2008”. Es decir, la intención del legislador inicialmente plasmada en el proyecto fue la de fusionar en un solo proceso verbal especial tanto la declaración de pertenencia, como el saneamiento de la falsa tradición de pequeños inmuebles. Por esa razón, la Ley 1561 derogó expresamente, en su artículo 27, la Ley 1182, que permitía sanear la falsa tradición con restricciones respecto de los inmuebles, característica que, por supuesto, calzaba perfectamente con la limitante de obtener la pertenencia en un proceso verbal especial solo de predios urbanos o rurales que no excedieran de la extensión o valor definidos en la ley.

 

Y no otra puede ser la conclusión, porque el artículo 1º de la Ley 1182, que también preveía un proceso especial para sanear la falsa tradición, lo circunscribía a “aquellos poseedores de bienes inmuebles cuya extensión en el sector urbano no sea superior a media hectárea y en el sector rural no sea superior a diez (10) hectáreas…”.

 

Adicionalmente, cuando el inciso 2º del artículo 2º de la Ley 1561 prevé que el título se saneará, siempre y cuando se cumplan los requisitos previstos en esa ley, ello incluye las exigencias de los artículos 3º y 4º que establecen la limitante de la extensión y valor de los predios rural y urbano, respectivamente.

 

En suma, el proceso verbal especial de la Ley 1561 para sanear la falsa tradición solamente es viable respecto de inmuebles urbanos cuyo avalúo catastral no exceda de 250 salarios mínimos mensuales o de predios rurales no mayores de una UAF. Si se trata de otros inmuebles, el proceso fatalmente deberá adelantarse mediante un proceso verbal no especial del previsto en la Ley 1395 del 2010 o el del Código General del Proceso, según lo que esté vigente.

 

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