Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition) requires author's given or first names to be spelt out in full in a reference list. This is the preference when using Harvard.
However, if you are unable to find an author's first name, copy the format for author's name on the item you are citing. This may mean that some author's given names will be spelt out and some will have initials.
Use the title in place of the author. Put the title in italics.
(Stedman's medical dictionary for the health professions and nursing ...)
Title. Year. edition. Place of publication: Publisher.
Stedman's medical dictionary for the health professions and nursing. ...
The names of groups that serve as authors (e.g. government bodies or organisations) are written in full in the reference list and the first time they are cited. The acronym for a name may be used in second and subsequent citations. Include jurisdictions if a government body, e.g. Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management.
If the unit name is not unique enough to be found without the jurisdiction and government department information, include the jurisdiction and department name. Where the department name is included, it comes before the unit name.
(Jurisdiction. Government Department, Year)
(Name of Organisation, Year)
(Australian Bureau of Statistics ...)
Jurisdiction Government Department. Year. Title of document. Place of publication: Publisher.
Department of Justice and Attorney-General, Workplace Health and Safety Queensland. ...
United States. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. ...
Author and editor
Author. Year. Title, edited by Editor name. Place of publication: Publisher.
Derrida, Jacques. ... , edited by Derek Attridge. ...
Author as editor
Insert ed. after the author's name, in the reference list only.
Author, ed. Year. Title, Edition. Place of publication: Publisher.
Woolever, Karen Reese, ed. ...
Author quoted in another work (Secondary Source)
Name the original author, and then cite the secondary author (i.e. the author you read).
(Original author surname quoted in Secondary author surname Year, page from secondary author's book)
(Zukofsky quoted in Costello ...
Reference the secondary source only in the reference list.
Secondary author. Year. Title of secondary source. Place of publication: Publisher.
Costello, Bonnie. ...
Two(2) to three(3) authors
List all authors in every citation.
(Surname 1, Surname 2 and Surname 3 Year, page)
(Layton, Robinson and Tucker ...
List all authors. For 2-3 authors, only the first-listed name is inverted. For the second and third author, the first given name and middle initial(s) - if available - are written in front of the family name.
Author 1, Author 2 and Author 3. Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher.
Layton, Allan, Tim Robinson and Irvin B. Tucker. ...
Four(4) to ten(10) authors
In the text, cite only the last name of the first-listed author, followed by 'et al.'.
(Surname et al. Year)
(Stoner et al. ...)
List all authors. For 4-10 authors, only the first listed name is inverted. For the remaining authors, the first given name and middle initial(s) - if available - are written in front of the family name.
Author 1, Author 2, Author 3, and Author 4. Year. Title. edition. Place of publication: Publisher.
Stoner, James A.F., Paul W. Yetton, John F. Craig, and Kevin D. Johnston. ...
Eleven(11) or more authors
Name only the first author followed by 'et al.'.
(Surname et al. Year)
(Stoner et al. ...)
For eleven or more authors, list the first seven followed by 'et al.'.
Author 1, Author 2, Author 3, Author 4, Author 5, Author 6, Author 7, et al. Year. Title. edition. Place of publication: Publisher.
Stoner, James A. F., P. W. Yettor, J. F. Craig, K. D. Johnston, R. L. Yeager, J. K. Smith, J. Pitta, et al. ...
Two or more items by the same author
Order entries chronologically in the reference list.
If the works are published in the same year, list alphabetically by title, then assign 'a', 'b', 'c', as needed. This may mean that (Hartley 2007a) is not the first in-text citation.
Author. Yeara. "Title of chapter." In Title of book, edited by Editor, page-page. Place of publication: Publisher.
Author. Yearb. "Title of chapter." In Title of book, edited by Editor, page-page. Place of publication: Publisher.
Hartley, John. 2007a. ...
Hartley, John. 2007b. ...
DOIs provide publication details for electronic resources.
What is a DOI?
A Digital Object identifier (DOI) is a unique code, which provides a permanent link to an online resource. The most common resources to include a DOI are electronic journal articles.
How do I find a DOI for my reference list?
A DOI is usually printed on the first page of an online journal article or e-book. You can also check the database record. Alternatively, you can search for your article on the CrossRef database (http://www.crossref.org). If a DOI exists for your article, it will be recorded in this database.
What if a resource doesn't have a DOI?
If it is a webpage, pdf, online document: provide the URL or the URL where you accessed the online document (whichever is easier). Refer to the example in electronic journal articles.
No date of publication
Substitute (n.d.) for the year in the citation and reference list.
Author n.d. Title. Place of publication: Publisher.
Clipper, Lawrence J. n.d. Pride and pre...
Resources not yet published
Substitute (in press) for the year in the citation and reference list.
Precede the year with the contraction for circa. (ca. 1986)
No place of publication
This information is only required for printed materials that are not journals.
e.g. If a book does not have a city of publication, use n.p. to indicate no place in the reference list.
Author Year. Title. n.p.: Publisher.
... Shakespeare's sonnets. n.p.: Bradshow.
Page, volume, issue
In text citations should include the number of the page where you found the information.
For works without pagination, include a chapter or paragraph number (if available), a section heading, or a descriptive phrase that follows the divisions of the work.
In citations of shorter electronic works, presented as a single searchable document, such locators may be unnecessary.
Summaries of information/sources do not require page numbers for the in-text citation if the information comes from many pages.
Building your own
QUT cite|write is not comprehensive. Sometimes building your own is needed.
Steps to build a reference
A reference list entry consists of:
- Elements: the elements of information required to identify a source without confusion
- Order: the placement of the elements in a consistent conventional order
- Formatting: the separating punctuation, quotation marks, parentheses, italics, and spaces.
Steps to build a reference, or to proof your drafted references:
- Glean, collect and save all the information needed / Check that all required elements are there.
- Place them in the appropriate order, or check that they are.
- Apply / check the appropriate formatting and spacing.
Generally, the elements consist of information as it is copied from the source used, or the location of that source. However, the information when placed in a reference, should then be formatted according to Harvard style, rather than the style found in the source. This ensures consistency for the reader.
Elements in order, of a whole work
Who. When. What. Where.
Examples with formatting
Greer, Ingrid. 2015. The native flowers of Fiji. Sydney: Federation press.
Myer. 2017. Annual report. http://investor.myer.com.au/resource/Myer_Annual_Report_20.
Elements in order, of a section in a work
Who. When. "What." in What. Where in the work. Where.
Examples with formatting
de Janasz, Suzanne C. and Monica L. Forret. 2008. "Learning the art of networking: A critical skill for enhancing social capital and career success." Journal of Management Education 32 (5): 629-650. https://doi.org/10.1177/1052562907307637.
Khan, Zaid. 2010. "Simulation as vocational training." In Handbook of research on discrete event simulation environments, edited by Evon M. Abu-Taieh and Asim El-Sheikh, 339-344. Hershey: Information Science Reference. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-60566-774-4/c-5.
- Whole works are italicised.
- Sections of works, or informal titles, take double quotation marks.
- The order of the first author is 'Familyname, Personal name', and authors following is 'Personal name Family name'.
Information for the elements
Who is responsible for creating the work?
Personal author name, Organisation name, Company name, Name of a government departments, Name of the creating artist
When was the work created?
Year, Date of revision, Date of posting
What is the work called?
Title, Article and Journal title, Chapter and book title, Webpage title, Document title
Where can the work be found?
Where it was published, Journal volume, issues, and pages, DOI, URL of report or article.
Chicago has two style options, the 'Notes and bibliography' style is described in chapter 14, and the 'Author-date' style is in chapter 15. Harvard at QUT uses the author-date style. However, chapter 15 outlines only what is different from chapter 14, so chapter 14 is still a source to be referred to.
|Citation Elements in Order:|
Proper Bibliographic Reference Format:
- Bibliographic references are double-spaced and indented half an inch after the first line.
- Include the title of the message and the URL where the message can be retrieved.
- Include the exact date of the posting.
- If the author’s name is not provided, use the screen name.
- Note that titles for items in online communities are considered unpublished works and are not italicized.
piper87. (2010, May 18). Re: Questions about cellphones and brain tumors [Web log comment]. Retrieved from http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/05/18/questions-about-cellphones-and-brain-tumors/#comment-523065
- Note that the above example is a comment on an original blog posted earlier that same day.
- If citing the original blogger's post, use the following format:
Parker-Pope, T. (2010, May 18). Questions about cellphones and brain tumors [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/05/18/questions-about-cellphones-and-brain-tumors/
Citations are placed in the context of discussion using the author’s last name (in this case, screen name) and date of publication.
Alternatively, you can integrate the citation into the sentence by means of narrative.
piper87 (2010) calls for investigation into fumes from new cellphones as a possible link.